Susceptibility to leaf blights of commercial barley cultivars in North-western region of Russia
Keywords:: barley diseases, cultivars, resistance, Northwestern Russia, net blotch, spot blotch
The long-term monitoring of barley diseases in the North-Western Region of the Russian Federation revealed that the most common diseases are leaf blights, caused by hemibiotrophic pathogens, which are net blotch (causal agent – Pyrenophora teres f. teres) and spot blotch (Cochliobolus sativus), as well as scald (Rhynchosporium commune). Over 5 years (2014–2018), susceptibility to leaf blights of more than 50 barley cultivars subjected to the state trials of the North-West of Russian Federation (Leningrad, Novgorod and Pskov regions) was studied. During the observation period, 2014 and 2016 were favorable for the development of barley blights and disease severity reached 90–100 % on susceptible cultivars. This allowed for a reliable assessment of susceptibility of barley cultivars to the net and the spot blights. The majority of barley cultivars registered in the State Register of Breeding Achievements Approved for Use in North-Western Region of Russia was found susceptible to the leaf blights. Cultivars with moderate resistance to one disease were susceptible to another. A group of varieties distinguished by resistance to the net blotch was selected while no such group was found for varieties resistant to the spot blotch. As many as 5 cultivars of spring barley were zoned during this period: Zu Zaza, KWS Asta, Olimpik, Salome and Cherio. Each of them was characterized by susceptibility to one or both pathogens.